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Many argue that, thanks to Netflix, HBO and other streaming services, we are living in a “golden age” of television. But will it last? See this article, “Watch it while it lasts: our golden age of television”. 


The Influence of Instagram

Posted: April 7, 2018 in Uncategorized

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Instagram is not just a social network, it’s a billion-dollar platform where “influencers” use their fame to market products.

Here are the top social media influencers in 2018. How much do Instagram influencers get paid per post? See here and here.

Instagram influencer are especially powerful in the fashion world. See this article: “Instagram influencers are the new fashion establishment”.   Do social media influencers use fake followers to boost their revenues? See this New York Times report on fake followers: “The Follow Factory”. 




Propaganda and PR: The Image Men

Posted: February 17, 2018 in Uncategorized

Modern propaganda, PR and advertising is roughly a century, stretching back to propaganda in the First World War and the subsequent birth of “public relations”.

On the role of the First World War, see “Was World War I propaganda the birth of spin?” In the United States, President Woodrow Wilson also launched a major propaganda campaign during the First World War. See this article, “How Woodrow Wilson’s propaganda machine changed American journalism.”

On the birth of PR, see this article in The Economist on the public relations industry: “The Image Men”. One of the pioneers of modern PR was Ivy Lee, called “Poison Ivy” by his detractors. See this excerpt from the book Behind the Spin: “Poison Ivy Lee and Propaganda”.

Below is part I of a documentary on the birth of PR, titled “The Century of the Self”.


Rich Kids of Instagram

Posted: February 15, 2018 in Uncategorized

History of Beauty Images

Posted: January 30, 2018 in Uncategorized

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See this article on the “Cheerlebrities of Instagram“. Also, see this essay, “Instafame: Luxury Selfies in the Attention Economy”. 

Brand Semiology: Christian Dior

Posted: January 23, 2018 in Uncategorized


On the semiology of brands, see this article on the positioning of the Dior brand: “Representations of women and brand positioning at Christian Dior“. For the author referenced in the article, see Laura Oswald’s article, “Signs, strategies and brand value”. For Oswald’s book, see “Marketing Semiotics: Signs, Strategies and Brand Value”.